S. К. Timoshenko

Realway station “Gnezdovo”

М. F. Lukin

P. А. Kurochkin

А. N. Popov

Fortification of Staff Army Group “Center” in group of mound “Lesnaya”

Fortification of Staff Army Group “Center” in the village Gnezdovo

Hitler in Krasny Bor (collection of the museum of Smolensk)

Monument on the graves of russian officers and soldiers

The history of modern times Gnezdovo and counties in the second World War

On the territory of the archaeological complex Gnёzdovskogo, Gnezdovo village and the neighborhood is a lot of evidence of the events that are related to the Great Patriotic War of 1941 – 1945. These objects are scattered throughout the complex and require not only additional further investigation, but also in the constant protection and reconstruction. Conventionally, these objects can be linked to several periods:

  • Objects start of the war period -, (July 2, 1941 July – 27-28, 1941)
  • Objects occupation period (July 27-28, 1941 – 25/26 September 1943);
  • Postwar objects (after 25/26 September 1943 gg);

The outbreak of war and the fighting in the district of Gnezdovo (July 2, 1941 – July 27-28, 1941).

From 2 July until 15 July 1941, on the western edge d. Gnezdovo (Old Bateko) in a wooded area near the train / railway station headquarters of the Western Front led by Marshal Timoshenko. On placement of staff is a memorial sign. There is evidence that the Germans threw in the area landing. His task was to destroy the headquarters and the disorganization of the army. The attempt was unsuccessful due to the protection of staff. Nevertheless personnel suffered considerable losses. July 14 in connection with the threat of attacking enemy headquarters was transferred to the north-west of Smolensk.

Until July 5 near Woodland barrow group housed part of the 5th Corps mehanizirovanoogo that combat order dated July 3, 1941 sent to the new place of concentration – on the left bank of the Dnieper. In a forest among the mounds can be found caponiers of military equipment. The area was located sanitary hospital “Gnёzdovsky resort”, which was evacuated on 27 – 29 July 1941

From the area Gnezdovo and Red Bora to Smolensk in the area of the station attacked 152 Infantry Division under the command of P. Chernyshev (16 army under the command of MF Lukin Lieutenant General). This Division was transferred to the position in the Katyn area for likividatsii German breakthrough in Smolensk. In the area Gnezdovo forces of civilians were built anti-tank ditches. 73rd Infantry Division 20th Infantry Corps led by Colonel AI Akimov (20 army under the command of Lieutenant-General PA Kurochkin) took the brunt of the 8th Infantry Division Major General Höhne, 5th Infantry Division and in the area directly Gnezdovo 137th motorized division Lieutenant General Bergman (5 army Corps) and a fighting retreat to Smolensk, along the Vitebsk highway. Order number 35 dated July 23, 73 cd under the guise of rear guards had to 8am to gain a foothold at the turn of the defense Kuprin Ladyzhitsy, Nest, Housewarming. Their placement in the date fixed by the memories AN Popov. Especially intense battles differed 26 – 27 July in the area Gnezdovo (memories AA Lobachyova “Difficult road of war) by 28 July the Germans knocked our troops in the Red Bor district, in consequence of which our troops hastily retreated to the other sideof the river Dnepr

Memories А. N. Попова:

“In the evening after the Mozhaisk and Yartsevo our train arrived at the station Gnezdovo; we unloaded Istan camp is not the bank of the Dnieper the evening at the campsite, we have detained a German saboteur, dressed in Soviet police uniform Commando tried to give signals to the German planes, but was caught Komsomol our camp.. . The next day we took off from the forest camp and on foot, crossing the Dnieper and moved to an unknown direction. Moving along the country roads on the left bank of the Dnieper, on its way we passed villages Red, which was the headquarters of a major Soviet military unit, Korytin and by the end of the day came to the village Karypschino where we were placed overnight in wooden former stables. in the morning we learned that we were brought to the construction of anti-tank fortifications on the banks of the Dnieper River. Early in the morning at sunrise, each of us received a personal task and began to dig anti-tank ditch (kontrskarp) on the left bank of the Dnieper. This went on for several days. Those days coincided with the first raids of German aircraft to Moscow (about 20-24 July 1941), that the night flew to Moscow train, and then came back alone (those that have not been shot down near Moscow). Later I learned that the so began the first air raids on Moscow. The dark hot July night in the sky Jets was incessant hum that is not abated in the evening until dawn. “

“Late at night in the woods, we heard the roar of engines. As we were told by locals it was the roar of tractors evacuating farms. We walked along the track, but it turned out to be the collective farm tractors, and the German tanks. We stopped the forestry workers, who showed us the shortest way to Gnezdovo station. at dawn, through the forest, we went to the left bank of the Dnieper to the area of the station Gnezdovo and wanted to wade to the right bank of the river, but on the right bank, our troops took up defensive positions (probably part of 73 Infantry division), and we were not allowed to cross this area. Furthermore our group (40-50 people), tried to cross the Dnieper ford, our troops shelled by adopting probably have dressed for the Germans. Then over us at low level flight appeared Messerschmitt-100 and fired at us”

The period of occupation (July 27-28, 1941 – 25/26 September 1943 gg.).

Construction of Staff of the Army Group “Center”

In early September 1941 the Army Group bid led by General-Field Marshal von Bock moved from Borisov in Krasny Bor near Smolensk. Originally housed in the headquarters of the armored cars on a special railway line. Near Dubrovinok radio mast was installed. Then the efforts of the construction battalion “Todt” prisoners of war and the construction of a special bunker and communications systems. According to the headquarters visited Keitel, Brauchitsch, Canaris, and twice in November 1941 and March 1943, A. Hitler. Bohr’s red and Gnezdovo been converted into specific areas. Built an extensive communications system, located about 80 tanks and armored vehicles. Former and strengthen the position of the Soviet troops expanded and completed. In particular, on the tops of many mounds deployed anti-aircraft guns. Along the Dnieper from Dubrovinok to Gnezdovo were built additional fortifications and bunkers. At the headquarters of the line “Abwehr” three specialized headquarters or abverkomandy were created. They are on the right specialized Recon and subordinate staff of “The Valley” (placed near Warsaw). He headed them Colonel von Geredyurf. Operationally departments report to the Special Division “I – C – AO” (intelligence and counterintelligence). Department was housed in the Red Bor near the garden von Bock. Abverkomandy had rooms 103, 203, 303 (deep reconnaissance, sabotage, counter-intelligence).

Underground youth groups and village Gnezdovo Red boron.

In October – November 1941 in the village of Gnezdovo one of the first appeared underground youth group. It was organized by the Student Medical Institute, Ivan Andreev, 10 graduates of the class of Vasily Anisimov and Mikhail Ivanov. Later, the group includes: students of Smolensk universities Luba post, Nadia Savkina Nina Churkin, Andrey Ivanov, graduates Krasnoborskaya school Nikolai Arkhipenkov, Luba Chentsova Sergei Khodchenko, brothers Leo and Vitaly Chepikova locals Piotr Yevtushenko, Neil Firsenkov Timothy Mokretsov Ivan Hamtsov other. By the spring of 1942, the group consisted of 18 people.

In early December 1941, the commander of the detachment were selected Ivan Andreev and Vasily Anisimov.

Village headman Gnezdovo during the occupation was appointed KS Sergeyev, former chairman of the kolkhoz “Red Dawn.” He helped aktichno underground workers, prisoners and handing out bread, according to the orders of the German command, collected weapons on the battlefield, but in good shipped guerrillas and broken handed to the smelter to the plant in the Red Bor area.

At the end of December 1941 the total organized underground committee, which included Nikonov (nicknamed “Fried) Nikolaenkov (nicknamed” Zhorozh “) Churkin, Andreev, Anisimov, Sergeev.

The underground group engaged aktichnoy sabotage and subversion at stations Krasny Bor and Gnezdovo. Some members of the underground were organized to work in Call Center in Dubrovinok area, passport offices, etc. and actively harmed by the new government. Information on the headquarters of the army group “Center” and communications, which was transferred to underground workers Gnezdovo partisan unit in Bati were so valuable that their importance mentioned Marshal Avicenna in his memoirs.

Activities of partisans and underground caused extreme irritation and disturbed the supply and operation of logistical structures and headquarters of the Army Group “Center”. To solve this problem it was caused by and is headquartered in Smolensk “Abvergruppa-309”, headed by counterintelligence captain Lutz. In the underground managed to introduce its agents. As a result, in July 1942 the underground was crushed, including Gnёzdovskoe. Some members of the squad managed to escape and go to the partisans (Yury Glebov, Segey Mazur Alexander scorer, Nadia Losev, Peter Nechaev, Eugeny Burdilovsky Galina Vysotsky, Pauline Kharlamov, Sergey Moiseinkov Nicholas Arkhipenkov et al.), But most were shot on the southern Readovke outskirts of Smolensk in August and September 1942.

Reconnaissance School “Saturn”

Since Smolensk in 1941-43 was in the front zone, he was under particularly close surveillance of German counter-intelligence agencies. For example, in Smolensk acted abverkomanda-303 (military counterintelligence), SD (security police), HFP, Secret Field Police, feldzhandarmerii number 907 and 580, the district and the city police department “1-C” Staff of the security forces of Army Group “Center” counterintelligence, and other institutions.

On the western edge of the Red Bohr on the territory of modern fire station was located a special house, painted in blue color. Place cottage bore the name “Saturn”. It was located diverssiono-Intelligence School. Obshezhitie and the school on the territory of the former sanatorium “Borok”. Since the summer of 1941 there was placed “Avbverkomanda-103” led scout kotoorye Major von Görlitz. Subfield able to implement their rights. He finished it and was thrown out by parachute near Moscow. He informed the security staff of the school and mesteraspolozheniya “Saturn”. This man’s name is unknown.

For the destruction of schools in the beginning of March 1942 he was thrown OMSBON special detachment (separate motorized rifle brigade of special purpose). Troop commander of AI Nikolaev. His main task was not able to perform, but engaged in sabotage and scouting activities. Destroyed 7 levels (about 2 thousand. Pers.). Ultimately, the detachment turned into a compound which employs about 130 people.

The activities of German archaeologists on site

Archaeological excavations of the German archaeologist Karl Raddatz in 1942

Gnezdovo attends Carl Engel – archeologist, rector of the University of Greёsvalde, in 1942 a member of staff of a special “Background”, authorized the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories Alfred Rozenbega “on prehistory and early history.” In the fall of 1941 or 1942, he made an inspection tour in the Smolensk region. He visited the central mound and a large mound.

Postwar objects (after 25/26 September 1943).

September 25, 1943 was released Smolensk g. Further along the Vitebsk Vitebsk highway act of the 82 Infantry Division (31 army under the command of Lieutenant-General VA Gluzdovskogo (pictured), which are released on. Gnezdovo. According to the operative date of the summary of the Soviet Information Bureau of the event can be considered as September 26 or 27, September 1943:

“In Vitebsk direction our troops were offensive battles and prodvinuvshisna some areas forward from 6 to 11 kilometers, captured the district tsentromSmolenskoy area Kasplya and took more than 200 other settlements, including the large settlements gifts BILYATY, Hills 1st, BUDNITSA, PUNISCHI, Semenova, large and small heat AGAPONOVO, Kamenka, MAMLENKI, SHELOMETS, nesting sites, Sofina, BUBLEVSCHINA, LEDOHOVO, Domaratskaya, shrunk, Kuznetsov “.

The summary of the Soviet Information Bureau on September 27 reported:

In Vitebsk direction, our troops continued their offensive and advancing in some areas ahead of the 5 to 15 kilometers, took more than 290 settlements, including large settlements Siluyanova, FOSCHEVO, hamlet, YASENOVIKI, Leuna, STEPANYUGI, Volokovaya, ZHELUTSY, silence, Arkhipovka , Mikhailovka, Volkova, RZHAVNA. Buyanova, ratchet and railway stations nesting place, Katyn, Kuprin.

According to the order of the commander of the Western Front on the relocation of front-line stores and shops of the Western Front at the exit of troops to the line Orsha, Mogilev on September 29, 1943 near the station “Gnezdovo” the storehouse of the Guards mortar units.

After the war, on the territory of Gnёzdovskogo archaeological complex and the neighborhood was found a few monuments, memorials and cultural sites in the lists made memorable places where underground groups operated.