The siege of Smolensk 1632 – 1633 years.
General M. B. Shein
Alexey Michailovich Romanov
Farmstead in Gnezdovo
Treasure of 1867 y.
Brick with stamp
Farmstead in Gnezdovo (?)
The railway station Gnezdovo
History Gnezdovo in the late Middle Ages and up to modern times
In the XI century. Gnezdovo gradually losing its importance to trade and craft, and the administrative center of Upper Dnieper and the inferior role of developing Smolensk. By the XII century. Gnezdovo transformed into small feudal estate.
As a settlement called in those remote times, we do not know. One of the first mentions of the deaf “hamlet Gnezdovo” contained in the local papers XIV c., In which it is named after the “military men”, who received his military service. This writes the well-known historian SP Pisarev (without citing sources): “At the end of the 15th century in the city parish, ie the actual Smolensk, still belonged gospodarevy yards in the Red, Ivanovo, and on the river Maksimovskiy Voptse differ materially. Smolensk “sovereign’s courtyard in the city” (area makes Lit gov’t 269, 301 and App number 3….) among country domains is mentioned village Nest, where above the Dnieper arranged was a stone building of the Lithuanian epoch. Gnezdovo belonged to someone of serving people, but in the era of the Polish Catholic bishop was transferred to (App. gram. number at the IX Murzakevich.). this writer met in Gnezdovo red clay tiles, too, with latin inscriptions (…). ”
Pisarev above refers to “Regional division of the Lithuanian-Russian state” MK Liubavskii, where it appears to the ground and got a glimpse of Smolensk materials in acts of Lithuanian Metrics. There, as well as in the earlier books of the Lithuanian Metrica no mention Gnezdova not. In general, the author’s treatment of the sources quite arbitrary. Also mentioned Pisarev “Urban parish” is nowhere mentioned in the sources mentioned. In general, it seems to me that as a nest, and the service people in this case – pure speculation Pisarev. The conclusion of the existence of material Gnezdovo “Lithuanian era” (ie, XV.) Pisarev doing well and on the basis of findings of bricks of a certain size, as well as “irrigated tiles depicting the Latin letters”, that he dates it this time. Obviously, “tile” – XVII in this tiles.
Rookery was part of the parish Katyn known from written sources from the second half of the XV century. Up until the XVII century. most of the Katyn parish, including nesting area, the palace belonged to the land, ie, belonging directly to the emperor. Mentions Katyn in acts of Lithuanian Metrics XV. (Only 2 references) related to the time awards are charged with the parish “vrochnogo silver” (ie, cash rents) individual members of the Smolensk boyars. At the same time, there is no data on the existence here of the boyars and the church land ownership, as well as Hospodarske (grand) households and service groups. In addition, these charters Rostislav Mstislavovitch 1136 suggest that the area of the right bank of the Dnieper in the western and central Smolensk region since ancient times was part of the princely domain (there is evidence from a number of right-bank tributes townships, while the left bank for central mentioned only individual point objects). Thus, the more likely that there would have to live freemen, dresses obligations directly in favor of the prince.
In the period when the Smolensk as part of the Moscow State in the XVI – beginning of XVII century. nesting area was part of the palace Katyn parish. Sacral center area conditionally “large breeding” in this period, obviously, was Ol’shanskoye settlement. Here XVII in the later inventory documents. fixed “Heath tserkovische Nikolskoye” at the end of the XVIII century. Olshansky settlement existed near the village Nikolsky town, and in the paintings of peasants, standing at the city wall in the besieged Smolensk on 26/09/1609 appears “Nikola Olshinskago pop Ivan Ostafyev”. The existence of the church is confirmed by archaeological finds of the necropolis.
In 1609, it begins the siege of Smolensk fortress dvadtsatimesyachnaya army of Polish King Sigismund III, who defended the governor MB Shane. During the long siege of the city and illnesses vanished more than 70 thousand. Its defenders, with most of the inhabitants died in the assault on the city last July 7 in 1611 to take the city of the Polish army and led to a catastrophic ruin of the territory and a significant outflow of population. In fact, the territory of western and central Smolensk 10’s and especially 20’s. XVII. re-settled, mainly originating from the territory of modern Belarus. In 1621 the privilege of Sigismund III district “large breeding” with the villages of Rokitno, Nivischi, sand, Pronin et al. (Nest itself is not mentioned in the document) was given in fief to the former clerk of the council of the discharge order Vasiliy Osipovich Janov, who fled in Rzeczpospolita . Around the same time burghers of Smolensk complain grasslands along the Dnieper to the river. Olsha. In this case both awards is obviously not initially been agreed with each other, and possessions borders are not defined, which laid the ground for further conflict. V. Yanov died a few years later, leaving no male heirs, and his former possessions fall in the number of names allocated to the Catholic bishopric (though the real Catholic bishop only in 1636 appeared in Smolensk). According to the Polish colleagues, the allocation of the estate in the bishopric happened in 1625, but has met only mention here estates bishopric in 1627 this property boundaries to the east and west are large forests – the future Red Bor and the Katyn forest in the north west – Kuprinskoe lake in the north of the boundary ran along the marshy south of the array with the modern Olsha.
After the conquest of Smolensk in the city settled Jesuits. The first Administrator of the future of the Smolensk diocese was about. Nicholas Sawicki, the canon of the Diocese of Vilna. After his death in 1630 Wladyslaw IV appointed administrator Peter Parchevsky (1598 – 1658). The earliest currently known mention of the name “Nest” met in the ship’s affairs 1640s. Related to the conflict with the bishop of Smolensk burghers of grassland at the confluence of the Dnieper River. Olsha. In the earliest of them – the ship Decree 1643 figures “Gneznovskoe estate” (Hnieznowska). The decree of 1648 is named already, “Gnezdovo” (Hniezdowska). Obviously, to the 40th years. XVII. Nest becomes the center of the episcopal possession. In the later census book of 1677/1678 states that the village was the first village Nest. At the same time the villages in the Russian terminology could be called towns – ie urban-type settlement. Peter Parchevsky on behalf of the Bishop of Vilna, he refers to the Holy See with a request for the opening of the new Diocese of Smolensk and sent to Rome. He spent about a year, waiting for the final decision. The papal document on the establishment of the Department in Smolensk, dated September 1, 1636 In 1637 when huge crowds of Smolensk bishop Peter Parchevsky made the first service. The diocese was not extensive, but there were many faithful. The Bishop organized a dozen parishes in the centers of the Polish influence. Mention parishes in Dorogobuzh, Red, Popova Gora.
In December 1632 nachinaetsya unsuccessful siege of Smolensk Russian troops led by M. B. Shane, who was shot in February 1634. Camp Gluszyca (left bank of the Dnieper River almost opposite the front of the early medieval settlement) – a temporary move to the parking aid beleaguered Russian troops Smolensk crown the king’s army Vladislova IV and Christopher Radziwill Lithuanian Hetman in August-September 1633, which was their connection. After moving armies in the war zone on the mountain Intercession here while the convoy was fortified. In 2007, archaeologists have found the remains of earthworks, mostly coinciding with the image on the plan Gondiusa 1636 In addition, in the area identified a number of multi-settlement sites, one of which (the settlement Gluszyca 1) securely communicates with Hospodarske (grand) courtyard Gluszyca, known for a number of written sources of the XV – beginning of XVI century.
New siege of Smolensk Russian Army headed by Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich began in June 1654 and ended with the capture of the city in September. After the victory of the former bishop’s estate in the Katyn camp is run by the former Smolensk boyars and the governor, and in 1665 a part of the palace grounds. According to the Russian census of books, a village on the heath Gnezdovo arises again between 1665 and 1668 years. The village already has a direct continuity with the d. Gnezdovo XX century. In 1670-1671, the former palace of land distributed in the Katyn mill estates Smolensk Reiter – cavalry “new order”, mainly because of petty and landless knights inner districts and the “old foreigners trips.” Nest in the village and an adjacent d. Glinische ispomescheny were two of cavalry, one of whom, Matthew Milewski, we know that he subsequently fell under siege Chigirina in 1677/1678 At the same time, hay meadows along the Dnieper again given to Smolensk philistines . The current thus cutting the landed tenure in nesting area, as well as the city’s hay meadows along the Dnieper, later divided between the individual owners, largely preserved to the situation, fixed general surveying.
Several times “Selco Gnezdovo” named in the materials planning general land surveying, drawn up in the last quarter of the XVIII century. However, no reports on the location of the village Gnёdovo mounds or other antiquities in these documents, we do not meet. The fact that there are numerous mounds, learned by chance, thanks to extensive work on laying railroad Vitebsk – Orel. In 1867, during these works on the outskirts of the village Gnezdovo treasure of silver jewelry was found in X. (Now kept in the Hermitage). Geographical distribution of the treasure, and attracted the attention of historians and archaeologists.
(Prepared according to the report Vladimir Kurmanovskogo, open sources on the Internet and the results of archaeological research)
Links to resources with pictures in Smolensk XIX – early XX centuries.